What’s the word for…


 Today there are about six thousand languages in the world, and half of the world’s population speaks only ten of them.

— Christine Kenneally, The First Word, p. 286

There’s a misconception on the Internet that every two weeks somewhere in the world a language goes extinct, but more accurately it seems to be once every three months.  That’s still a death rate of four a year.  Four languages on the earth will lose their last speaker over the next year.

 Today 457 or 9.2% of the living languages have fewer than 10 speakers and are very likely to die out soon, if no revitalization efforts are made. 639 of the languages known to have existed are already extinct – 10% of all languages.


How Many Seconds in Eternity?



So give me a second…

  • One thousand seconds is equal to just under 17 minutes.
  • One million seconds is 11 and a half days.
  • One billion seconds is 32 years.
  • One trillion seconds is 32,000 years.
  • One quadrillion seconds is 32,000,000 years.
  • One quintillion seconds is… simply, longer than the universe has existed

So seconds add up, but the above also gives context to some otherwise usually intangible, big numbers.  A week is 604,800 seconds.  A 30-day month is 2,592,000 seconds.  The average human lifespan takes place over a span of two-and-a-half billion seconds.

A second seems to us a very small measurement of time in our everyday life, but in reality, a second is an entire universe.  Are you ready to get REALLY REALLY small?  Consider Planck Time, which is the smallest possible division of time.  If you think a second is tiny, here’s the mind-boggling thing:  There are more units of Planck Time in a single second than there have been all the seconds since the Big Bang.

No Word in Hebrew for “Soul”



Ever wondered where the notion of an afterlife first emerged in the Bible?

No, it’s not in Genesis.  Sure, Adam, Noah, Moses & Company may have lived hundreds of years, but when they died, they seemed to be genuinely kaput. Concepts such as a spirit or soul were unknown to the ancient Biblical authors; in fact, there wasn’t even a term for “soul” in Hebrew.  The idea of any afterlife is a decidedly late Jewish tradition, the Judeo-Christian notion of heaven today doesn’t find its beginnings until the Book of Daniel, written in the 2nd century BC.  Daniel, 12:2 -3:

“2And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.  3And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.”

And there you have it, occurring nearly a thousand pages into the narrative.  The Judeo-Christian concept of an afterlife was still a developing notion by the New Testament, which is why the Rapture reads not unlike the above, though both may strike the modern reader as very much un-heaven like.

Other, more contemporary takes on the idea of an afterlife:

 I would love to believe that when I die I will live again, that some thinking, feeling, remembering part of me will continue.  But as much as I want to believe that, and despite the ancient and worldwide cultural traditions that assert an afterlife, I know of nothing to suggest that it is more than wishful thinking.

— Carl Sagan, The Demon Haunted World

 We are each free to believe what we want, and it is my view that the simplest explanation is there is no God.  No one created the universe, and no one directs our fate.  This leads me to a profound realization:  There is probably no heaven, and no afterlife either.  We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe.  For that, I am extremely grateful.

— Stephen Hawking, Did God Create the Universe

 The significance of our lives, and our fragile planet, is then determined only by our own wisdom and courage.  We are the custodians of life’s meaning.  We long for a Parent to care for us, to forgive us our errors, to save us from our childish mistakes.  But knowledge is preferable to ignorance.  Better by far to embrace the hard truth than a reassuring fable.  If we crave some cosmic purpose, let us find ourselves a worthy goal.

— Carl Sagan, Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space

Recycled Goods


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Next time your birthday rolls around and you start to feel old, just put everything in perspective.  You may be a few decades old, but there is not a single atom in your body that is under 5 billion years old!  There can’t be, it’s simple physics.

 You are connected to the cosmos in an intimate way, and your atoms have been around for billions of years, changing their form until five billion years ago they came together in the current form they have and they haven’t changed since then, and they’re in your body.

— Physicist Lawrence Krauss, Lecture, Cosmic Connections, 2011

Our solar system is a construction of materials from previous stars, and as our solar system is under five billion years old, there are few elements present today on the earth that could be any younger than five billion years.  Consider for a moment just one single atom of iron coursing through your blood today.  That iron atom is a veteran of a star that exploded some five or six billion years ago and was drawn into the solar system when our solar neighborhood was a nebula cloud.  As Carl Sagan once poetically noted of nebulae:  “Stars are born in batches.”

Later, they wander out of their nursery to pursue their destiny in the Milky Way.  Adolescent stars, like the Pleiades are still surrounded by gas and dust.  Eventually, they journey far from home.  Somewhere there are stars formed from the same cloud complex as our Sun 5 billion years ago.  But we do not know which stars they are.  The siblings of the sun may, for all we know, be on the other side of the galaxy.

Cosmos, Ep. 9, PBS, 1980

So stars travel, pulled and drawn by the gravitational currents of the galaxy like something adrift on the ocean, and just like your five or six billion year-old iron atom.  Let’s give our iron atom a name.  Iron Man.  Wait, what… too much?  Okay, let’s call it Tony (yes, I’m retaining the Iron Man theme).  Tony came out of that last star five or six billion years ago and ended up in the ingredient-broth of our solar system.  But how did Tony get there in the first place?  Let’s imagine a history for our favorite iron atom.

  • Thirteen billion years ago (“hydrogen-Tony”)…

The atom that will someday become our Tony is a simple hydrogen atom (element #1), swirling through the gravitational eddies of the early universe.  Suppose our hydrogen atom (let’s call it “hydrogen-Tony”) is swept into the currents of an early star, one of the short-lived “mega stars” that kicked off the early universe’s stellar process.  In this case it fuses into helium (#2), alternates into an unstable isotope of beryllium (#4) several times but is never able to overcome the beryllium barrier and decays back into helium.  The star blows up after ten million years and “helium-Tony” finds itself, along with some of its neighboring material, amalgamated into a second star.  This one maybe lasts about 100 million years, during this time our “helium-Tony” hits the helium lottery, crosses the beryllium border and is ejected as a carbon atom (#6).

  • Twelve billion years ago (“carbon-Tony”)…

Our “carbon-Tony” languidly falls into an accretion disc of a third star, where it resides around the periphery for 2 billion years and is ejected an oxygen atom (#8).

  • Ten billion years ago (“oxygen-Tony”)…

Having escaped the fusion process of three stars relatively unscathed, let’s hammer Tony with this fourth star.  Over the four billion year life of this star “oxygen-Tony” fuses into silicon (#14), then up the helium-4 scale to sulfur (#16), argon (#18), etc., before ending the star’s life as iron (#26), resulting in the Tony we know and love today.

  • Six billion years ago to the present day (our “iron-Tony”)…

In our simulation, by now our little friend has played a role in four different stars, been altered in chemistry by each one (and as iron, even contributed to the death of the fourth star) before becoming a part of our solar system, our planet, our biosphere — and for a few months or years — your body.  Go, Tony!

This is an amazing journey, and I don’t mean to immediately undermine it.  But if we’re going to truly consider this atom’s origins, here’s the realization that will make your jaw drop….

There’s no single beginning to an iron atom… Its Atomic Number is 26, after all.  It had no less than 26 different origins.  Iron Man, indeed!

So the above reconstruction considers just one lineage of Tony, but there are 25 other “hydrogen-Tonys” — no fewer than 25 other ways this history had to do down — in order to result in an “iron-Tony.”  And this is the threshold at which it becomes rather convoluted, like a family tree.  Much as you are derived from the merging of two parents, four grandparents and eight great grandparents, any iron nucleus ultimately traces its heritage back to (at least) 26 hydrogen ancestors.  Following any one line is like tracing the ancestry of your surname, but there are at least 25 other equally valid branches on this family tree that resulted in “iron-Tony” today, and each traveled its own road and had its own backstory before the paths eventually converged with the current Tony.  In other words, instead of four stars, the collective nucleus of Tony could have potentially played a role in as many as 8, 10 or 12 stars… or more.  As Lawrence Krauss observed during the lecture referenced above, “Every atom in your body has experienced — maybe more than once — the most violent explosion in the universe.”  It’s the “maybe more than once” that I want to emphasize here….  It’s not just the matter of every atom in your body coming from a star, nor the idea that the atoms came from many different stars, but the fact that any ONE atom in your body could have come from MULTIPLE stars.  Any single atom in your body — by itself — can represent an alchemy of a myriad of stars, and that bigger picture… almost too big for our comprehension… I kinda think that’s amazing.

5800 Copies of the New Testament, and Each is Different (…and Hamlet, too!)


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There are some 5800 Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, all hand-written between the 2nd and 16th centuries.  Fifty eight hundred… and no two are identical.  Think about that.  And the earliest copies — those which were fewest in number, transcribed by amateurs and most influential over the whole — were also the ones that were most subject to variation.  As Professor Bart Ehrman (UNC Chapel Hill) has so memorably expressed the point: “There are more differences in our Manuscripts than there are words in the New Testament.”  There is no original handwritten letter of Paul, no original copy of Mark or Luke to go back and fact-check, not even close.  The oldest versions that survive today are fragments of copies written two centuries later, and if there was as much textural variation in those two centuries from which virtually nothing survives as there clearly was by the fourth century, well, maybe Jesus’ name was actually Joshua. (Hint: it was)

The standardization of text in books is something we take for granted today, but this was a revolution that only came about with the invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century.  Even the works of Shakespeare were not immune from significant textural variations.  Quite simply, the Hamlet we read or view today was not any Hamlet that existed in Shakespeare’s time.  Our Hamlet is a bloated merging of the three different versions surviving from Shakespeare’s day — Q1 from 1603, Q2 from 1604 and F from 1623.  Some had lines others did not, some had sequences others did not, but it’s very unlikely all three were ever performed (or intended) as one “Mega-Hamlet.”

So what was the secret to 17th century folks sitting through a four-hour play?  They didn’t.

What is the Higgs Boson? (And Why Its Confirmation in 2012 Was Such a Big Deal)


Fish swim in an ocean.  You and I also exist in an ocean, though one less dense than water, a cocktail mix of nitrogen and oxygen we call our atmosphere.  It was long suspected, and proven in 2012, that the entire universe exists within an ocean far more fundamental… a Higgs Field.  The Higgs Field is what — by simply being there — determines mass as everything “swims” through it.  Any particle that interacts with this ocean has mass, any particle that does not interact with it has no mass.  The default speed in the universe for anything without mass is light speed.  The default speed in the universe for anything with mass (however slight) is Rest.  The Higgs Field is that determining factor, and the way it slows matter down is what makes our material universe possible.  The atoms in your body could never form (or for that matter, keep that form) at light speed.  Without the Higgs Field creating the slightest resistance the entire universe would be nothing but particles darting around at the speed of light… in other words, light, but no eyes to see it with.

Deconstructing Mythology: 10 Facts About Early Christianity that Most People Don’t Know


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As Miriam A. Ferguson, governor of Texas, is reputed to have declared in the 1920s, “If English was good enough for Jesus Christ, it ought to be good enough for the children of Texas.”  Jesus clearly spoke Elizabethan English… it’s in the Bible, after all.

Do you ever wonder where our collective notions come from?  Have you ever considered on what bedrock rests long-held assumptions we just take for granted?  To revisit the point made in an above post, there are some 5800 manuscripts of the New Testament, hand-written between the second and sixteenth centuries, and no two among the 5800 are identical.  Some 80 generations of transcriptions and interpretations, translations and re-interpretations (and sometimes mistranscriptions of those mistranslations) has left us with the collateral effect that most people simply don’t know… what they don’t know.  There is an argument to be made — and I think it’s a good one — that when one does not understand a thing’s context, one cannot not understand the thing in question.  For example… what was the first New Testament book written?  It was not any of the gospels (which, frankly came late), but the letter we know today as First Thessalonians (though there is a valid argument for Galatians, which had to have come very early or very late in Paul’s career).  Who says the Resurrection lasted 40 days?  Well, one single unknown author writing some 60 years after the fact mentioned it once, and that’s it.  Who ever said Jesus was a carpenter?  Frankly, no one (amazingly, it seems to have been an error in transcription).  Was Jesus even his name?  Not really; at least he wouldn’t have recognized it.  What was the only gospel to not feature any demons?  That was  John.  Where do you find the star?  Matthew.  The manger?  Luke.  Are two of the gospels simply plagiarisms of a third?  Yes… but there were no lawsuits for such things in the first century.

My interest is not in proving or disproving, my interest is simply in delineating the line between what can be known versus what cannot, the difference between discernible fact and assumption.  It is probably fair to say that many people learned their Bible stories not from the Bible, but from children’s storybooks about the Bible, which just adds another level of embellishment from the source.  Even when consulting the source it’s worth noting that when one reads the New Testament in order, one is decidedly NOT reading the New Testament in order!  I began my career as the resident “in-house” fact-checker at a state archives, and as anyone acquainted with the use of primary sources will attest, mythology overwhelms facts, and there quickly becomes a measurable disconnect between what what CAN be known versus what people THINK they know.  Here, then, are just a few examples, understanding context and separating facts:

10.  Spreading the gospel before the Gospels.  Okay, so there were three leaders of the early Jesus Movement — Peter (the Apostle described as “Cephas,” or “the Rock”); James, the “brother of the Lord” (according to Mark and Matthew, one of Jesus’ four brothers); and Saul/Paul, a relatively late convert to the Jesus Movement, in the mid-to-late 30s AD.  Even a casual reader of Paul knows that he did not quite see eye to eye with Peter and James.  When Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face,” Paul wrote in Galatians 2:11, angry at what he viewed as Peter’s hypocrisy.  Paul spent much of the 50s in Asia Minor establishing congregations and collecting monies, during which time perhaps Peter and James might have imagined they were marginalizing him and his influence.  But it was Paul’s successful marketing-of-message and letter-writing campaign that would go on to form the basis of the faith.  The letters of Paul form the backbone of the New Testament.

As to the other two leaders of the movement:  there are only two letters attributed to Peter within the New Testament, whether or not they were actually penned by him is subject to debate — First Peter is generally regarded as potentially authentic, Second Peter is not — but in Acts 4:13, Peter is described as illiterate.  Similarly, there is only one letter in the New Testament attributed to James, but its date and authorship, despite the name (“the” James versus any random James), is very much in question.  It is interesting and ironic that of the three leaders, it was neither Peter nor James who provided the framework for the Christian faith as it exists today, but Paul… the outsider, and the only one of the three who — by his own admission — never personally knew any living Jesus.

9.  Any second now.  We may not think often today of its apocalyptic beginnings, but the Jesus Movement was just one of countless apocalyptic cults arising in the Judean wilderness of first century Palestine, and as such the early Jesus Movement’s founders fully expected a literal end of the world within their lifetime.  Its apocalyptic nature can still be found throughout Paul’s letters.  One example is in First Corinthians, as Paul responds to a question of whether or not young people should be permitted to marry with a lengthy refrain that there simply wasn’t much time before the end came. “The appointed time has grown very short,” he warned (7:25 – 29).  “Let us not neglect our church meetings,” he exhorted in Hebrews 10:25, “especially now that the day of his coming back again is drawing near.”  Peter, too, sounded a little like a man on today’s street corner holding a sign.  The end of all things is near. Therefore be alert and of sober mind so that you may pray. (First Peter 4:7)

Of course, the most cited example of Paul’s insistence of the end of days is the rapture.  People confuse the rapture with something in Revelations, but the rapture is a brief passage contained within Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians:

15 According to the Lord’s word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. (First Thessalonians 4:15 – 17)

First Thessalonians is possibly the oldest surviving writing by Paul, generally regarded as written between 49 and 52 AD.  It must be understood that Paul was writing to a community that had believed that Jesus would return within their lifetime, only to see members start dying off in the meantime.  His letter was intended to assure his congregation that even those who had just recently passed away would be taken too, in addition to the “we who are still alive.”  Taken out of this context today, the rapture, conflated with Revelations, now strikes one as some dark and twisted, bizarre worldwide zombie awakening.

8.  What did Paul know and when did he know it?  The letters of Paul do emerge as a crucial tool for understanding pre-Gospel Christianity in that they represent the closest written source to the time of Jesus and provide, really, an unparalleled access into the “think-tank” of the early Jesus Movement.  Anyone who hopes to put early Christianity in context has to pore through the letters of Paul before even considering picking up a gospel… Paul is the “patient zero” of the New Testament.

Paul’s Epistles comprise essentially one-third of the New Testament.  There are 13 letters attributed to Paul; it should be understood that scholarly consensus today contends that 7 of the 13 are authentic — which is to say that seven of these letters were indeed written by Paul — while 6 are regarded as “less authentic” and whose authorship is subject to debate.  But whether 7 or 13, our author Paul — the architect of one-third of the New Testament — actually says very little about Jesus or his life.  In none of these letters does Paul ever quote any proverb of his Jesus’ lifetime, nor does he ever cite a single miracle of his living ministry; indeed, Paul makes no specific reference to Jesus’ life at all prior to the events of the Last Supper.  The three-plus decades before Jesus’ last 24 hours do not factor into Paul’s writing; and quite frankly, in Paul’s time many of these details and traditions that would later be associated with Jesus simply were not yet in place.  The sacrifice and salvation of Jesus is what interested Paul, and that was the message he wanted to spread.  Even the Resurrection is referred to as an abstraction, which to be fair, is not unlike the gospels.  The gospels will dedicate full pages — in fact, entire chapters — to a single sermon of Jesus but gloss over the Resurrection — if true, the most miraculous event in the history of the world — with a few broad strokes or a solitary chapter.  In reading the letters of Paul, one might be tempted to dismiss any resurrection as a complete abstraction but for the fact that Paul does make one specific reference (First Corinthians 15:1 – 8) which is interesting:

“Now, brothers and sisters, I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and on which you have taken your stand. By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise, you have believed in vain.  3 For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas [Peter], and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born.”

This marks Paul’s only specific remark in his letters regarding the Resurrection, and it’s interesting to note that the “more than five hundred” instance that he refers to above is an account that is not found in any of the gospels.  One might also observe that Paul includes his encounter on the Road to Damascus a few years later as one of Jesus’ appearances; our modern-day interpretation of the Resurrection lasting “forty days” is a later tradition that derives solely from one lone line of text in Acts 1:3… there is NO other source making this claim in the New Testament.  Paul knew nothing of a Resurrection confined to forty days.

7.  Emergence of the Gospels.  So by far, the earliest and oldest surviving Christian writings in the Bible are the letters of Paul, written in the 50s AD, but Paul doesn’t have much to offer in terms of a Jesus biography.  The first stories ABOUT Jesus don’t find their way to print until four decades after Jesus’ death.  Since the 19th Century scholarly consensus has maintained that Mark’s was the first gospel penned, sometime around 70 AD, while the other three followed over the next two to four decades.  This means that nearly two generations passed after Jesus’ death before the earliest narrative gospel was written, and possibly close to a century before John’s Gospel.  The Gospels emerged out of the decades between the two Jewish revolts against Rome and came out of the vacuum left by the deaths of the founding generation (Peter, Paul, etc.).  Despite the later stories that would arise around Peter’s martyrdom, we do not know exactly when or how Paul or Peter died.  The modern scholarly consensus is that the four gospels of the New Testament were not first-hand accounts, nor were they necessarily penned by the men for whom they are named.  It is entirely possible that earlier proto-gospels may have been just “sayings” gospels; the Gospel of Thomas (rediscovered in the 1890s and at Nag Hammadi in 1945) and the theoretical (but lost) “Q” Gospel, which provided many of the sayings found in Matthew and Luke, provide two possibilities.  The narrative template (Jesus’ “life story”), seems to have first arisen with Mark.

  • Paul’s lettersoldest Jesus-related writings — written in the 50s AD
  • The Gospel of Mark written in the post-Jewish Revolt period, after 70 AD
  • The Gospels of Matthew and Luke between 85 and 95
  • The Gospel of John was written sometime around 100, give or take
First centuryA

Jefferson Hall, 2016

The Gospels were romance tales, to what degree any of them are historically accurate would hinge almost entirely on Mark.  The Gospel of Mark was the “first draft.”  Mark is the first, shortest, simplest and most crudely written of the gospels, but Mark provided the model and the template — directly or indirectly — for the other three.  A dark story, it is very much in keeping with Pauline thought, emphasizing sacrifice and struggle.  In Mark, Jesus is a healer and exorcist; the author of the gospel was either unaware or uninterested in the “Q” source material, so Jesus is not the gifted orator that would characterize the later gospels; his longest single passage/sermon lasts just 40 sentences.  Mark’s Jesus is a man overtaken by events; he’s eccentric, moody, cryptic and inflammatory; early in his ministry (Mark 3) his family is convinced he’s lost his senses.  His mother and his brothers come to drag him away, but he ignores their efforts.  Jesus is on a mission, it’s poignant that in Mark no one — not his family nor even his disciples — ever “get” what he’s talking about.

The life narratives used in Matthew and Luke were not separate witness accounts but were simply transcriptions from Mark, slightly modified, and supplemented with dialogue from the “Q” source.  They were essentially “second-draft Mark,” smoothing over the tonal inconsistencies and “fixing” some of Mark’s narrative shortcomings along the way.  The Gospel of Matthew was written for a Jewish community, this is the gospel of the Jewish Jesus; anyone familiar with the Old Testament would have had an easier time relating to it; Matthew’s Gospel was focused on fulfilling Scripture, and Jesus is cast in the role of a New Moses.  A good example of how Matthew tries to “fix” a narrative shortcoming in Mark: in Mark, Jesus finds himself unable to perform miracles when he returns to Nazareth; he falls victim to a kind of stage fright.  Matthew’s author makes it clear that he chooses not to perform miracles at Nazareth because of all the unbelievers in his hometown.

Matthew wastes little time in putting the “Q” sayings to use; the Sermon on the Mount occupies three early chapters (5-7) as Jesus dispatches wisdom and the Law in a setting not unlike Moses from the mountaintop.  These early chapters in Matthew offer a more accessible introduction to Jesus than Mark, which begins with an inscrutable and slightly oddball protagonist exorcising demons up and down the Judean countryside.

These “Q” sayings become the Sermon on the Plain in Luke.  The author of the Gospel of Luke was probably a physician, his gospel was written for a non-Jewish, Grecco-Roman audience.  He also wrote Acts; though broken up in the New Testament today, Luke/Acts was intended as a seamless two-act literary work.  The Jesus that Luke presents is the Serene Jesus; in Mark Jesus is erratic and often irritated or downright angry, but the Jesus of Luke is mild and unflappable.  Another example of how a subsequent gospel “fixes” Mark: in Mark, Jesus is silent after conviction, silent during crucifixion, silent as he is mocked by the adjacent criminals (BOTH of them); the only line he speaks in the ENTIRETY of the crucifixion sequence in Mark is the impassioned “Eloi eloi, lama sabachthani?”  This dramatizes the despair and dark quality of Mark.  In contrast, Luke’s narrative has Jesus stopping by the side of the road to implore the women not to weep for him, asking God to forgive those who are nailing him to the cross, making friends with one of the criminals beside him and never does he cry out “My God, My God, why have you forsaken me,” but instead he gracefully exits with “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.”  This is a different narrative Jesus.  In Mark, he’s out of control.  In Luke, he’s not only in control, he’s conversational.

Unlike Matthew and Luke, the Gospel of John is not a rewrite of Mark, but a thorough re-imagining, with a clearly Eastern influence.  Certainly to the modern reader Mark — with its never-ending gallery of demons and possessed people — is difficult to view seriously; John’s narrative is a bit more sophisticated, and never does a demon rear its head in John.  John introduces a few different disciples (Nathanael, Jude, etc.) and a handful of different narratives and stories, some of which were frankly demonstrably later inventions, like the “Pericope Adulterae” (see #4 below) and the interview with Nicodemus, which takes up all of John 3 and hinges on a clever double entendre (“born again/born from above”) that only works in the Greek in which these manuscripts were written… when tellingly, both would have been speaking Aramaic.  By the writing of this fourth gospel, Jesus is self-assured and incredibly eloquent; his longest soliloquy runs three entire chapters (14-17, more than 150 sentences).  This is the gospel of the Divine Jesus; here he is no longer man but God on earth.  It is probably safe to say that when one thinks of Jesus today it is this meditative and all-knowing Jesus found in John or Luke that one pictures, and not the capricious and brusque Jesus of Mark.  (After all, in Mark 1:29 – 31, Jesus is invited to Peter’s house and heals his mother-in-law of a fever, she then gets up and fixes them all dinner… though this is later found in Matthew and Luke, the sheer brevity in Mark suggests that he heals her SO that she can feed them… a darkly humorous inference that is distinctly Markan)  As anyone who has read Mark and John back-to-back might attest, it’s hard to reconcile the Jesus of Mark with the Jesus of John (and remember, 30 to 40 years separate the writing of the two).  But two themes that do reoccur from Mark:  Jesus’ family is once again portrayed as antagonistic toward his ministry (he’s taunted by his brothers in John 7), and the author of John does not make any use of the “Q” source.  In lieu of the “Q” sayings, John introduces Jesus’ seven “I am…” declarations (“I am the Bread of Life,” “I am the Light of the World,” “I am the Gate,” “I am the Good Shepherd,” “I am the Resurrection and the Life,” “I am the Way, the Truth and the Light” and “I am the Vine”).  The idea that Jesus says far more in the gospel that is furthest removed from his lifetime could be seen as emblematic of myth-building; after all, it is unlikely dialogue would survive verbatim for 70-80 years, by the time of the writing of John.

The narrative of Jesus, then, may be seen like a game of Telephone, in which each author added their own particular slant or spin, each owing a debt to the less-developed tradition that preceded it, before which the trail disappears into the abstraction of Paul’s letters, possible oral traditions and lost sayings gospels; no writing of Jesus during his lifetime exists.

It’s worth noting that in the past two centuries additional non-canonical gospels have been discovered, though with the exception of the aforementioned Gospel of Thomas, all are incomplete.  The Gospel of Philip emerged with Thomas at Nag Hammadi, the Gospel of Judas in the 1970s, the Gospel of Mary [Magdalene] in the late 19th century, the same period which saw the discovery of the Gospel of Peter.  Only the last portion of the Gospel of Peter survives; in it Herod, not Pilate, orders the crucifixion, and the narrative ends with two giant angels and a fantastic walking, talking cross emerging from the empty tomb.  Transcriptions for these gospels can be found online and demonstrate that in the early centuries after Jesus there were many different interpretations and ways of seeing Jesus, though most of these Christologies/Christianities (Gnosticism, Montanism, Docetism, Manichaeism and Arianism) were suppressed in the fourth century as the Christianity of the Trinity (“Orthodox Christianity”) was created.  Speaking of the Trinity, the only reference to the “Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” in the entire New Testament occurs in Matthew 28:19, spoken by a Resurrected Jesus.  The origins, the meaning and any further explanation of any Trinity simply does not appear in the New Testament; the “Comma Johanneum” passage within First John 5:7 – 8 is a later fraudulent addition.

6.  Change for the money changers.  The “Cleansing of the Temple” in Jerusalem (the episode also known as “Jesus and the money changers”) is one of the few episodes to appear in all four gospels — in Mark, Matthew and Luke it occurs in the final week of Jesus’ life and is what brings him to the attention of the authorities; in no small way it is ultimately one of the reasons he is put to death.  The author of John, however, shifts it to the first act of his ministry (John 2:13 – 16), and the affair passes without incident.

5.  Richer or Poorer.  The tradition of Jesus as a carpenter emerges solely from one line in the Gospel of Mark, 6:3 — “‘Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon?'”  This is similar to the text in Matthew, the gospel that was simply a more Jewish transcription of Mark “‘Isn’t this the carpenter’s son?  Isn’t his mother’s name Mary, and aren’t his brothers James, Joseph, Simon and Judas?'” (Matthew, 13:55, emphasis added)  One will note that in Mark, Jesus is a “carpenter,” in Matthew Jesus is the “carpenter’s son.”  Compellingly, the famous Christian Apologist (passionate defender of the faith) Origen (c.184 – 253) wrote in the third century, “that in none of the Gospels current in the Churches is Jesus himself ever described as being a carpenter.” (Against Celsus 6:36).  Wait, did he not read Mark?  But he is not incorrect.  Many of the earliest versions of Mark — including Papyri 45 (c. 250), which is the earliest fragment of Mark 4-9 — do NOT feature any reference to Jesus as being a carpenter, just as being a “carpenter’s son,” similar and consistent to what is found in Matthew.  In the end which of these two versions of Mark is original is not possible to determine, though the earlier provenance of “carpenter’s son” and harmony with Matthew’s text (not to mention Origen’s rebuff) certainly leads to the suggestion that “carpenter” is the scribal error.

Moreover, the original Greek “tekton” does not necessarily mean “carpenter” in any sense we think of today anyway, this is just another instance in which context has been lost.

If Paul’s letters are to be given any more credibility, given their closer chronological proximity to the life of Jesus and the fact that Paul offers us so little information about Jesus the man, one throwaway line from Paul’s letter in Second Corinthians leaves an odd inference that Jesus came from a wealthy family.  Speaking on the subject of financial donations he remarked:  For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you through his poverty might become rich. (8:9)  Certainly, the line represents some allegory, but it seems that if there were no basis in literal truth there would seem to be little reason for choosing the wording.  The idea that Jesus may have walked away from a wealthy family certainly adds pathos to the encounter with the wealthy young man who could not bring himself to walk away from his own wealth (Mark, 10:17 – 25, Matthew, 19:16 – 24, Luke, 18:18 – 25).

4.  Fraudulent alterations to the text in the fifth century: Mark’s Resurrection and John’s “cast the first stone.”  It was, in many ways, the ultimate cliffhanger: The women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.”  And THIS was the original ending of the Gospel of Mark.  There is no Resurrection in the two oldest complete copies of Mark (Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus), both from the fourth century.  Mark, the first of the four gospels written, originally ended with this empty tomb at Mark 16:8; we refer to it today as “Short Mark.”  The earliest surviving versions of Mark to feature the Resurrection — the “Long Mark” that we see today, featuring 12 additional verses — emerge from the fifth century, not just decades but centuries after the original writing.  In fact, fifth century Mark is quite variegated — like its predecessors, the Codex Syriacus has no Resurrection, but the Codex Alexandrinus and the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (all fifth century transcriptions) do, while their contemporary Codex Washingtonianus goes further and features an entire additional passage not found even in today’s version of Mark, the Freer Logion (“Satan’s time is done…” proclamation), inserted between 16:14 and 16:15.

Similarly, the “Pericope Adulterae,” despite being one of the most recognizable stories today about Jesus, is a medieval insertion.  In this episode, found only in John (7:53 – 8:11), a woman accused of adultery is brought before Jesus as a trap by the Pharisees:

“53 Then each of them went home, 1 while Jesus went to the Mount of Olives. 2 Early in the morning he came again to the temple. All the people came to him and he sat down and began to teach them. 3 The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in adultery; and making her stand before all of them, 4 they said to him, ‘Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of committing adultery. 5 Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?’ 6 They said this to test him, so that they might have some charge to bring against him. Jesus bent down and wrote with his finger on the ground. 7 When they kept on questioning him, he straightened up and said to them, ‘Let anyone among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her.’ 8 And once again he bent down and wrote on the ground. 9 When they heard it, they went away, one by one, beginning with the elders; and Jesus was left alone with the woman standing before him. 10 Jesus straightened up and said to her, ‘Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?’ 11 She said, ‘No one, sir.’ And Jesus said, ‘Neither do I condemn you. Go your way, and from now on do not sin again.’”

The above passage is one of the most famous episodes of Jesus’ ministry, and his response to his challengers perhaps his best known saying, and yet this entire episode is simply not found in any copy of John before the fifth century.  This is a medieval interpolation, even written in a different style.  It is not extant in the third century copies of John (Papyri 66 or 75), not found in the fourth century (Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus), nor in the majority of the fifth century texts (Codex Syriacus, Codex Washingtonianus, Codex Borgianus, and regarded as likely not present in the Codex Alexandrinus or Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, though the latter two are missing pages here).  Not until the Codex Bezae and Codex Fuldensis (early-to-mid-fifth century) does it first appear, and even as late as the tenth century it was still excluded from many versions for the reason that it was recognized as inauthentic.

3.  What child is this?  For centuries, one unintended consequence of the birth narratives was that it left a problem of explaining Jesus’ “lost years” between infancy and ministry.  But most scholars today regard the Nativity as “tradition,” (read: fictional) rendering any years in-between as a non-issue.  In antiquity, miraculous birth stories often arose around figures of prominence, after the fact.  The Nativity of Jesus is found in only two of the four gospels — both written nearly a century after his birth — and outside of the presence of Jesus, Joseph and the Virgin Mary, the two share no common narrative thread with one another.  It is the story of Luke that introduces the idea that Jesus and John the Baptist are cousins, a Roman census, no room at the inn, a birth in a manger and the annunciation to the shepherds.  Matthew’s story seems to feature an ordinary birth (no manger), but introduces the star of Bethlehem and wise men from the east, Herod’s slaughter of the innocents and the family’s flight into Egypt.  The Nativity that is observed every Christmas season today simply merges these two narratives into one.  In fact, many of the ideas and instances that people today believe are in the Bible are actually later Christian traditions, assumptions and amalgamations; the Nativity is just one of the clearest examples of this.

There is no record of any census involving non-Roman citizens and no record anywhere of Herod’s slaughter, which surely would have attracted attention in other sources.  Herod’s slaughter seems a narrative analog of the one Pharaoh ordered in Exodus and the story of Moses; the fact that this episode is confined to the gospel (Matthew) which most tried to tie itself to Judaic themes is probably not a coincidence.  And the use of Bethlehem as the birth location is likely a construct to conform with the prophesy of Micah 5:2.  Interestingly, in both Mark and John, there is no Bethlehem pretense; Jesus is fully from Nazareth.  In John 1:46, when told that Jesus was from Nazareth, Nathanael wryly remarks — ‘Nazareth! Can anything good come from there?’”  And in John 7:41 – 42, one of the arguments presented against Jesus by the crowd was that he was not from Bethlehem.

Another attempt to conform to Scripture is the depiction of Jesus as born of a virgin, fulfilling the text of Isaiah 7:14.  But tellingly the authors of Matthew and Luke would have been reading the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Bible, in which “parthenos” means virgin.  In the original Hebrew text of Isaiah an “almah” means young woman, which does not necessarily carry any connotation of sexual status.  In a likely example of overreach, it seems possible that in forming their stories the authors of Matthew and Luke were responding to the mistranslation of the Scripture they would have had at hand.

It is important to note that a “virgin” Mary is never mentioned in the gospels of Mark or John (on the contrary, John 7 certainly leaves the impression his brothers are older), and Mary is never mentioned at all in the writings of Peter or the many letters of Paul… and certainly, had such a tradition existed in Paul’s time, it seems hard to believe that he — the master of early Christian spin — would not have exploited that to the fullest.  In short, if Jesus was the product of a virgin birth, it seems that no one told Peter or Paul.

2.  404 Not Found.  There is no evidence of any historical Jesus outside of the Bible stories and no mention of him by any surviving contemporary sources.  This is important and bears repeating: anyone looking for any extra-Biblical evidence of a Jesus of Nazareth will come away disappointed.  He is mentioned in the New Testament and the New Testament alone, and no writing within the New Testament even dates to within his lifetime.  He goes unmentioned in any surviving records of the day — no appearances in court records, census data, notes or letters or official documents, Roman or Jewish, of any kind.  Nothing was written by him — or of him — in his lifetime.

To be technical, his name wasn’t even Jesus.  “Jesus” is a derivation from the Greek in which the New Testament books were written.  His name would have been Yeshua or Yehoshua, which would come down from the Hebrew today as Joshua.  So to be clear, despite two millennia of people praying to someone named Jesus, no one in his lifetime would have ever called him Jesus, because no one would be speaking Greek in first century Palestine.

1.  In the Name Of...   Given the fact that Christian doctrine was shaped by Paul, the life story of Jesus written by anonymous Gospel authors two generations later and the Church organized and politicized by oligarchs three centuries after his death, one disturbing fact does seems clear:  Even presuming that there was a genuine historical Jesus/Yeshua at the center of centuries of myth-creation and political appropriation, Christianity is a faith that was founded and shaped by NO ONE who actually knew him.

Some Conclusions and Questions

As a historian trained by practice and profession to confirm facts and provenance, this is a mess.  (Sorry… can I say that?)  There is no primary source here.  In the end one cannot substantiate a single lesson or any word ever said by Jesus, as every word that comes to us today is third-person hearsay written down no earlier than four decades after his death.  In the first gospel he speaks the least, while Matthew and Luke introduce dialogues from the “Q” source.  So where did the “Q” source come from and were these actually the words of Jesus?  And if they were, then why are they not found anywhere in the gospels of Mark and John?  Similarly, why are Jesus’ distinctive dialogues in John found nowhere else?

In an absence of primary sources, the next logical step is to consider the earliest possible secondary sources; in this case the earliest secondary source comes an entire generation after his death with the writings of Paul, which returns us to #8 and the fact that Paul says very little about Jesus.  Did Paul exist?  Almost unquestionably; we know because Paul left behind a trail.  Paul… wrote.  And Paul wrote extensively.  We have numerous writings of Paul; we have no writings of Jesus.  A logical argument is that if Jesus (or any god) wanted/intended/imagined a message to be spread then why did he or that deity not make sure that Jesus himself could write and pass the message along, instead of relying on later third-party sycophants who never knew him to transcribe (or clearly mis-transcribe) the agenda over the following generations?

The Trinity, for example (Father, Son and Holy Ghost), is a cornerstone of Church doctrine, but any reading of the gospels finds this idea only once, shoehorned into Jesus’ mouth in a questionable post-Resurrection passage in Matthew.  And the Resurrection stories — leaving aside the fact that the first gospel didn’t even have one — are a plethora of conflicting narratives… Paul, Matthew, Luke and John all tell different tales, only John offers us any specific incident or more than a single chapter.  John presents two chapters, and one of those two (John 21), like Mark 16:9 – 20, is generally regarded as an inauthentic later addition.  The Resurrection seems a lost opportunity… we have five sources (and two of them regarded as forgeries), 40 days (maybe? Again, see #8) and almost nothing specific is recorded.  It’s a stage encore played with all the mics off or a Super Bowl touchdown with no camera running.  If the Resurrection was planned by a deity it does seem somewhat poorly orchestrated.

The absence of a Yeshua/Jesus in Philo stands out additionally… Philo of Alexandria (c.25BC-c.50AD) was a lifelong student of liberal Jewish thought, documenting several wandering Jewish mystics of the time period, but despite the whole of Jesus’ ministry taking place within the prime of his life he seems to have been unaware of such a person, which seems odd for someone with a following who might have performed miracles and returned from the dead.  At the same time, the notion of modern “mythicists,” who believe Jesus was a figure entirely made up seems flawed as well.  After all, the one tradition that is found from the earliest source onward — really, the most defensible element of the narrative — is that the man was crucified; this is decidedly NOT the way one would want to start the story, if given a choice.  Another strong suggestion of his existence is the tortured logic by which Matthew and Luke place Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem.  If starting from a clean slate, he would be from Bethlehem to begin with, no hoops to jump through.  That he was from Nazareth is an inconvenient detail that fiction would not invent.  If you cross Ockam’s Razor with the analogy that “where there’s smoke there’s fire,” it argues against probability to suggest there was NO Jesus.

I often say there is always some grain of truth in the sandbox of embellishment.  The Mayflower landed, but not at Plymouth Rock… after all, the first reference to any “Plymouth Rock” came some 121 years after the event!  Paul Revere’s “Midnight Ride” really happened, but never once did he shout, “the British are coming,” as he himself (and the colonists) considered themselves British.  This quote above came some 85 years later in a poem by Longfellow, who effectively reshaped history into mythology-in-rhyme.  Many of these shared stories one learns from childhood are a result of embellishment and half-truths writ generations later.  Stories snowball, myths gain traction; it’s just what they do.

I suspect that any genuine and historical Yeshua probably would have about as much in common with our celebrated “Jesus Christ” as Saint Nicholas would with his more famous alter-ego.  Saint Nicholas was a real person (who lived from 270-343), but our “Santa Claus” emerged over the centuries as a mythological and marketable variant built upon his legacy.  It’s not much of a stretch to suggest that “Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night,” are words that were never uttered by the genuine Saint Nicholas, and yet these words are “gospel” we cannot disassociate from him.  At what point does a real person become mythology?  The first writings about Jesus began some two decades after his death and reached a crescendo in the centuries that followed, with more gospels and interpretations than we can reconstruct today.  But not unlike the secular examples of King Arthur or Robin Hood — similar composite characters written and re-imagined by different authors over centuries — history and fact fall short in actually finding him.  Like an Impressionist painting, the well-defined picture of Jesus that we see by the fourth century loses focus the closer one looks toward his lifetime, and ultimately dissipates altogether a full two decades before his lifetime.  Also not unlike an Impressionist picture… one may see what one wants to see.

How You Are Stardust


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  “It never ceases to amaze me that our bodies are constructed of the stuff of stars.” — Stephen Hawking

  “You are stardust.  It is literally the most poetic thing I know about in all of science” — Lawrence Krauss
  “That association–for me–is actually quite enlightening, and ennobling, and enriching.  In fact, it’s almost spiritual.” — Neil Degrasse Tyson


 We are a collection of atoms that understands that it is a collection of atoms…  [We are] the universe knowing that it is the universe.

— Dr. Nina Lanza, How the Universe Works, s04e05, Discovery Communications, 2015

You are essentially a collective intelligence.  You are a hive.  The human body is made of up roughly 100 trillion cells.  It’s interesting to note that every person on earth spent their first half hour as a single cell, what we refer to now as a zygote.  Now a zygote sounds like something from a low-budget sci-fi film, but this was how you began, the definition according to Wikipedia:  “a cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction.  In multicellular organisms, it is the earliest developmental stage of the embryo.”  Omnis cellula e cellula; every cell comes from a previous cell.  Every cell in your body represents an unbroken chain linking four billion years of organic chemistry.  But every cell is finite; about three hundred million cells die every minute — you don’t feel your body slipping away because they are always replaced in kind.  Neil Shubin, from his 2008 book Your Inner Fish:

 Our skin cells, for example, are continually dividing, dying, and being sloughed off.  Yet you are the same individual you were seven years ago, even though virtually every one of your skin cells is now different:  the ones you had back then are dead and gone, replaced by new ones.  Like a river that remains the same despite changes in its course, water content, even size, we remain the same individuals despite the continual turnover of our parts.

— p. 118

A human cell follows a lifespan and then it dies, replicated by another — in fact, every ten years your face has completely regenerated with cells that are clones of their predecessors.  Interestingly, the same is true on a larger scale – with the “face of humanity” — which regenerates every hundred years from the clones of its predecessors.


So let us understand the difference between cells (finite, living chemistry) and atoms (the cell’s non-living and essentially-infinite constituents).  Here’s a sense of scale:  Your body is made up of roughly 100 trillion cells, but each of those 100 trillion cells is made up of roughly 100 trillion atoms.  So basically, you are to the cell what the cell is to the atom.  An atom is the smallest constituent of matter that is still matter.  An atom of gold is a smallest portion of gold you can cut it into; if you were to cut it smaller it would by definition no longer be gold.  Cut it any smaller you’d simply be breaking down the universal parts of an atom (protons, electrons, quarks), dismantling the hardware, if you will.  Though a cell is much larger in size, the same general principle applies from the inorganic to the organic; a cell is the smallest constituent of you that is still “you.”  If you were to cut a cell any smaller, you’d simply be splitting constituent parts (acids, sugars, water, etc.).


If one were to think of a body as an entire civilization, one might consider the single human cell as a city, a well-organized metropolitan layout following a strict master plan (its DNA), which was handed down by the city planner (aka, the parents).  But what is the city made of… bricks, steel, glass, drywall and mortar.  Just as each body is made up of 100 trillions cells, and each individual cell is made up of roughly 100 trillion atoms, think of the atom then as a single grain of sand in the countless bricks or sheets of glass that make the city.  The city is a magnificent collection of structures, but we don’t often consider the fact that each and every grain of sand making up the city existed long BEFORE the city, and will last long AFTER it’s gone.  The grain of sand is repurposed over millenia.  This distinction made, now consider the untold and unheralded story of the atom, because this is the story of everything.


Code Breaking

So much in our universe is just an expression of code combinations.  Our DNA is made up of a base of just four chemical compounds, yet repeated enough times that the result is a staggering diversity.  A mix of just three primary colors results in the millions of colors that we see, and every song ever made has been just a different arrangement of the same collection of repeating notes. Our alphabet is made up of 26 letters, and from that an entire language is possible.  Our material universe is no different; it is the end result of just 92 basic elements, mixed together in different combinations.  There are only 92 types of naturally occurring atoms in our universe.  Think of our universe as an amazingly flavorful stew made up of just 92 ingredients… and ultimately, 91 of those 92 were made from just the first.


In every elementary school, sitting atop that old periodic table is atomic element #1, hydrogen.  Made up of just one proton and one electron (hence, its atomic #1), hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe and was the first atom to congeal in those first several hundred thousands years after the Big Bang.  Forgive me if I shout this: it is interesting to note that roughly 10% of your body is more than 13 billion years old!  Atoms, like that grain of sand, are simply recycled and repurposed, and the closest physical property to eternal that exists in our material universe.  In the beginning the only matter in the universe was hydrogen… well, technically, hydrogen, a little helium and trace amounts of lithium… those first three elements on the periodic table; but that’s just in the interest of full-disclosure — if it helps you can just call it all hydrogen.  There was no physical structure that came out of the Big Bang (… and even today, the universe remains an overwhelming 98% hydrogen/helium mix).  Brought together by the fundamental force of gravity, hydrogen clouds eventually gathered, compressed and lit up into the first generation of stars.  Stars, in one form or another, ultimately created all the other natural elements that exist today, fused together within the furnaces of their cores.


This process — the creation of heavier elements from lighter elements through fusion — is known as nucleosynthesis.  A process suspected as early as the 1920s, by 1957 the last details of the amazing story of stellar nucleosynthesis were finally understood.  Imagine two hydrogen atoms thrust together into one… one atom with two protons is by default no longer hydrogen but helium (element #2, with 2 protons and 2 electrons).  Helium can fuse into lithium (element #3, with 3&3) and beryllium (#4, 4&4), or three helium atoms (three #2s) can fuse directly into one carbon (#6) in something called the triple-alpha process, initiating the CNO cycle, as carbon then fuses into nitrogen (#7) and oxygen (#8).  The process continues up the scale; in essence, one sees the order of creation and the difficulty in creation with the ascending order on the periodic table, with every number representing a new and heavier elemental material than the one before.  Stars are element factories, creating ever more complex elements right up to the last instant of their existence (to iron #26), and then only in that instant of the violent death/explosion of a star in a supernova/hypernova/neutron star merger does the process overcome the iron barrier to create the even rarer elements… from silver (#47) and gold (#79) and lead (#82) to uranium (#92)… and all the elements the star spent its life and death making are blown out into the universe.


 The Third Star

So stars function as the great seed spores of the universe.  In the early universe stars lived and died alone; there simply couldn’t BE any planets, comets, asteroids or dust because there were no heavy materials.  Here’s the takeaway: there had to have been at least two generations of stars living and dying in order to create the rich abundance of heavy materials that make rocks, planets, our earth, and life like us possible.  From NASA…

 Our Sun is thought to be a third-generation star and our entire solar system is made of the recycled star stuff of previous star generations.

– NASA (https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss/display.cfm?ThemeID=2&Tab=Background)

In the 1950s two broad classifications for stars were created

  • Population I stars, meaning third generation, relatively new and high in metallicity.  Our own sun is a Population I star.
  • Population II stars are the older generation and demonstrate a less metal-rich composition.

In 1980 a third classification was added

  • Population III stars (the first generation) are theoretical and thought to be long extinct, but would have contained no metals at all.

Simply, through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis each star produces within its interior heavier-than-helium elements that in turn are released upon supernova, enriching the next generation of stars that form from its nebula.  It goes without saying that long before you were here your ancestors were here.  Everything has an antecedent.  So by applying the same anthropic principle that declares that your grandfather must have existed because you exist, quite simply the only way our sun, with its heavier elements, can exist is because some nearby Population II star (or stars) detonated, creating our higher-metallicized stellar nursery.  The universe existed some 9 billion years before our solar system, but we couldn’t exist without those 9 billion years before us.  “Only Population I objects are expected to harbor planetary systems.” (– http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/PopI.html)


Here’s the bottom line:  the human body is made up of 65% oxygen atoms, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, 3% nitrogen, 1.5% calcium, 1% phosphorous… in short, you are made 100% of atoms, and 100% of those (non-hydrogen) atoms came out of long dead stars… there is simply no other way to generate them.  You are literally stardust.  Every non-hydrogen atom in your body came from a star, but not one came from a star that you see in the sky today.  They — and we — are descended from those generations of stars that died long before us.  The stars that dot the night skies of today are our atomic brethren.

 Except for hydrogen and helium every atom in the sun and the Earth was synthesized in other stars.  The silicon in the rocks, the oxygen in the air, the carbon in our DNA the gold in our banks, the uranium in our arsenals were all made thousands of light-years away and billions of years ago.  Our planet, our society and we ourselves are built of star stuff.

  Carl Sagan, Cosmos, Ep. 9, PBS, 1980

And you might notice the above caveats regarding hydrogen… as pointed out previously the hydrogen atoms are even older!  You are a sculpture some 13 billion years in the making, using materials brought together from across vast distances of the universe.  The five most common elements in the universe are hydrogen, helium, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.  The most common elements in your body are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen; helium aside (which is a noble gas & chemically inert), your body reflects — virtually in kind — the makeup of the universe around you.

 In order that we might live stars in the billions, tens of billions, hundreds of billions even, have died.  The iron in our blood, the calcium in our bones, the oxygen that fills our lungs each time we take a breath — all were cooked in the furnaces of stars which expired long before the earth was born.

Marcus Chown, The Magic Furnace, p. 211

The atoms from your pinkie came from different stars than the atoms in your thumb.  Every rock, every tree, every blade of grass, every bird, every breeze of air, everything you see and feel and everyone you’ve ever known in this material universe is made of atoms from an ancient fusion in the belly of a star.  We are mere custodians of these atoms; they’ve existed millions/billions of years before us and will outlast us by the same.  To paraphrase Carl Sagan, we are the ashes of hydrogen fusion that have achieved self-awareness.  We are a way for the universe to know itself, if only for a moment, before like a star we release our borrowed atoms back into the universe to be recycled again elsewhere.

 Every living thing is just a temporary home for carbon atoms that existed long before there was life on earth and will exist long after… earth [is] gone.

— Professor Brian Cox, The Wonders of Life, Ep. 3, BBC, 2012

Additional Reading:

 Population I, or metal-rich stars, are young stars with the highest metallicity out of all three populations. The Earth’s Sun is an example of a metal-rich star.

 All Population I stars are relatively rich in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium since they formed from clouds of gas and dust which contained the products of nucleosynthesis from previous generations of stars. The presence of heavy elements in protoplanetary disks is believed to be a key factor in the formation of planets, so that only Population I objects are expected to harbor planetary systems.


 The Sun also belongs to the Population I group of stars, which contain relatively large amounts of heavier elements. The first ever stars, made from pure hydrogen and helium are Population III. These exploded as supernovae, producing fusing the lighter elements into heavier and heavier elements. Our Sun, then, contains the metal from previous generations of stars that went supernova.


 Because stars manufacture heavier elements, each generation of new star forms from material previously enriched by previous generation stars and therefore has a higher metallically than the previous generation.
So it’s thought our sun is formed from material already recycled, produced by two previous generations of stars that came before it…. This can be measured by looking at the spectral lines to determine the composition of the star and hence the likely generation it was formed in, the higher the metallically ratio the older the generation of material the star was formed from.

Composition of the sun, listing its metallurgical content:  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/tables/suncomp.html

Breakdown of the process of stellar nucleosynthesis:  Stellar nucleosynthesis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia